Posted in Research Skills

The Personal Interview, Part IV: Finishing Touches

You’ve arranged an interview, done your research, and received insightful answers to your brilliant questions. Now what?

  • It goes without saying that you will thank your source at the interview’s conclusion but don’t forget to send a thank you note.
  • If possible, before you conclude the session arrange a method (generally by email or phone) by which you may contact your source if you have any additional questions. Make sure to ask first and keep your questions brief and few in number-remember, your source has already been generous enough with their time by granting the interview.
  • Interviews provide a large amount of information but to get the most from this resource you will need to transcribe and/or organize it to allow quick and easy access to the material.-Review your notes or audio recording of the interview as soon as you can while the material is fresh in your mind.
    -As you review, begin noting the information you might use and categorizing it to allow for quick reference later.
    -Develop a clear system of organization to distinguish exact quotes from paraphrasing.
  • Don’t forget your citation! Find examples of citing interviews on our library style manuals page.
Posted in Research Skills

The Personal Interview, Part III: KISS It

Keep It Simple, Student!

Much of what makes a good interview will come naturally and involves skills you already have (whether you know it or not!) Here are a few things to keep in mind during the interview session:


How you listen during an interview directly affects the quality of the experience for both you and your source. Listening attentively and offering your undivided attention is proper etiquette and makes for a more comfortable environment. Use nonverbal (examples: nodding your head, reacting appropriately to humor, & exhibiting good posture) and verbal (short questions, small words of agreement) cues to guide the conversation and show that you are interested and are following the responses closely.


If a response inspires a new question don’t be afraid to ask it-you often find your best and most effective questions this way.


If you did not understand a response politely ask your source to repeat it or explain a particular point. Keep in mind that repeatedly asking for clarification can give the impression (rightly or wrongly)  that you are unprepared or inattentive.


As mentioned above, be prepared to let the interview take you through some unexpected territory but do not let conversation linger for too long off-topic. If necessary, use your questions to gently and politely steer the interview back to the original subject.

Record (x2)

Even if you are recording the interview take thorough notes. It will provide you with a written framework of the audio (or saved text) from the interview and serve as a backup in case of technological difficulties.

Posted in Research Skills

The Personal Interview, Part II: Preparation Matters

“You only get out of it what you put into it.”

Trite? Yes. Cliche? Most certainly. True? Absolutely, especially when it comes to the personal interview. If you want more information from a book or a journal article you can always refer to it later, but with a personal interview you generally have one chance to get everything you might need. Proper preparation will ensure that the interview is productive for the researcher and not, to put it bluntly, a waste of the source’s time.

Contact your potential source.

Make sure to contact your source well in advance of the assignment’s due date out of courtesy and to allow for maximum schedule flexibility. If you are soliciting an interview cold (you do not know the source) take time to discover the source’s preferred method of contact. This may require using an e-form on a website or contacting a departmental administrative assistant but should never, unless otherwise stated, involve calling the source at home. If the person does accept phone calls at work please be considerate of their schedules and avoid calling them at busy times. No matter what contact method you use you will need to let the source know the following:

-Who you are and why you have contacted them
-The nature of your project (includes audience and possible publication or web posting)
-How long you expect the interview to take
-A general idea of the types of questions you will ask and topics you want to cover

Schedule the interview.

Meet at a time and place of the source’s choosing. If your schedule is limited, let them decide from a range of potential meeting days and/or times. Make sure that you will be able to arrive on time and allow enough time to cover all of your questions (including follow-up questions.)

Know the material, know your source.

The key to formulating good, specific interview questions is knowing both the topic and your source’s contributions the topic’s body of knowledge. Research both before beginning your question list to ensure an intelligent and productive interview.

Develop your questions.

Good interview questions are open-ended and allow the source to give a thoughtful, informative response. Questions that require only a “yes,” “no,” or similarly short answer will provide little or no useable information and halt the flow ofconversation. Consider the following hypothetical questions one might pose to a field biologist:

Question 1: Did you see any bears during during your time the Smokies?

Question 2: How many bears did you see during your time in Smokies and what factors do you feel influenced that number?

Which question would you rather hear the answer to? Which would provide more information that you might use later in your paper? Exactly.

Maintain your balance.

For most topics there is a large body of accepted knowledge that is readily found in most available resources. It’s important to hear your source’s opinions on these matters but you also want to use your valuable interview time to record your source’s unique knowledge of the subject. Consider beginning the interview with a few general questions and use them to lead into more specific questions about your source’s particular interests.

Develop your follow-up questions.

Anticipate potential answers (which will be easy, because you know so much about the topic and your source) and make note of follow-up questions that clarify or elaborate upon the source’s responses.

Check everything. Twice.

Conducting a productive and professional interview means being as organized and efficient. Do you know how to get the interview location? Is your list of questions in an easily accessible format? Are the batteries  on your laptop or recording device charged? Do you have a backup plan if the batteries fail? Does that chat software work on your version of Windows? Is the microphone and audio functioning properly? Is your cellphone turned off?

Posted in Research Skills

The Personal Interview, Part I: Begin at the Source

The personal interview is an exceptional research source that is often overlooked due to the easy access of online databases, online journals, and other e-resources. Throughout the next two weeks we will highlight personal interviews, telling you all you need to know to prepare for, conduct, and incorporate personal interviews into your next paper or project.

What is a personal interview?

For our purposes, a personal interview is an interview between a researcher and a credible source. The interview can take place face-to-face, over the phone, or over the internet using email or a chat platform. During the process the interviewer uses a series of questions and follow-up questions to explore the source’s opinions on and knowledge of a particular topic.

Why use a personal interview?

Personal interviews are valid and versatile academic resources that can be used for almost any project, paper, or presentation. In addition to providing valuable information, expert sources often offer current and unique perspectives in a given area. For example, an expert on black bears may have spent the past summer in the Great Smokies studying their behavior. Information from an interview can also be used to support evidence found in other sources or provide valuable information in an area where there is little or no available research.

What makes a source credible?

A credible source is a recognized expert in his or her field of interest and ideally has years of experience to draw from. When searching for a source consider the following questions:

  • Is the source’s area of expertise relevant to my topic?
  • Does this individual have any experience instructing others in their area? If so, how much?
  • Has the source published any papers, conducted any workshops, or otherwise given any presentations on your topic?
  • Is this individual regarded as an expert by others in his or her field of study?
  • Do they belong to or hold positions of authority in any professional societies?

Remember, your project is only as strong as the information you present so choose your sources accordingly.

How does one locate a credible source?

Students in a particular program of study may already be aware of accessible experts that would make good candidates for a personal interview. If not, you can begin your list of possible sources buy searching the internet or viewing online faculty profiles at a leading institution. In addition, many online databases contain scholarly or peer-reviewed papers and can be mined for published works on your topic. Look for authors who have written or contributed to multiple papers. Databases frequently provide a list of other scholarly works that reference or cite a given paper. If a given author has been cited a number times by other scholarly works it is often a sign that he or she is a leader in the field. Your professor or another faculty member (who might make good sources themselves)  might be able to recommend someone to you as well.